Maintenance KPIs for Facilities Management

Maintenance metrics are measurements that give you insight into how everything and everyone is operating in your maintenance operation. Metrics are great ways to quantify the daily performance of your maintenance team and facilities upkeep.
Maintenance KPIs for Facilities Management
Written by
Iain Phillips
Published on
April 24, 2023

Key performance indicators (KPIs) play a crucial role in evaluating and assessing the performance of individuals, departments, projects and companies over time. They serve as a means to gauge the effectiveness of these entities in accomplishing their desired outcomes. 

Facilities Maintenance KPIs are an essential part in measuring the success of your facilities management operation, they enable you to measure maintenance-related goals, such as reducing downtime and minimising repair and replacement costs. 

These KPIs serve as benchmarks for your facilities, shedding light on your team's current standing, the remaining distance to be covered, and the necessary actions required to reach your objectives. 

By setting quantifiable goals, maintenance KPIs effectively align with the broader organisational objectives and act as the ultimate targets you strive to achieve.

For example, your organisation’s ultimate goal might be to cut costs by a certain amount. There are several ways maintenance can impact this goal, like departmental spending or production waste. 

When you attach numbers to these components, they become KPIs. This might be as simple as saying you’ll reduce maintenance spending by 10%, or committing to reducing production waste by 20%.

Facility maintenance is different from other types of maintenance such as manufacturing maintenance & vehicle maintenance. For that reason the metrics facility managers measure are different from those of manufacturing facilities. 

In a manufacturing company, the focus is likely to be more on equipment maintenance and failure whereas facility management in buildings like schools, hospitals and leisure facilities have a more general focus on the whole facility and things like compliance and health and safety.

What are maintenance metrics?

Maintenance metrics are measurements that give you insight into how everything and everyone is operating in your maintenance operation. Metrics are great ways to quantify the daily performance of your maintenance team and facilities upkeep.

Having the numbers in black and white makes it easier to find strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. Metrics tell you a lot about how everyday tasks influence the bigger picture, which gives you control over your maintenance operation and practical ways to improve work.

For example, the ultimate goal of your maintenance department might be to decrease inventory costs. This is the big boulder that needs to move forward. But there are a lot of different, smaller actions joined together to push the boulder, little by little, like inventory accuracy and failure rates. These are maintenance metrics.

Why are maintenance metrics so important?

Measuring something allows you to track your progress. Many maintenance teams go day-by-day from task to task without sight of the bigger picture. It can be difficult to understand if they are improving the overall state of the facility management.

Maintenance metrics are important because they measure performance and therefore progress. It allows you to identify areas of improvement and also where you are doing well. 

Beyond being an internal resource for a facility management team, maintenance metrics allow you to present your performance easily to the wider company, you can show the progress you have made for the company and in return can ask for more resources if required.

Without metrics measuring your performance, you will inevitably end up in a position where you find it difficult to convince others of your success and further improve your team's operations when required. 

Key Facility Maintenance Metrics & KPIs

Facility maintenance metrics are the data-points you need to collect to be able to measure your KPIS. Alone some of these metrics will not mean much, but combined together with some calculations they can be great performance indicators.

The frequency of these metrics can be selected based on your reporting requirements. You can choose to report on metrics daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually if you wish. Depending on the nature of your maintenance tasks you will choose different frequencies. For performance monitoring weekly and monthly are good starting points.

Facility maintenance Metrics

These metrics are simple counts most of the time and do not need to be explained in detail, however, to be able to measure these metrics effectively without much manual work you will need to invest in a facility maintenance management system. The following basic metrics are:

  • # of reactive maintenance (RM) tickets raised
  • # of reactive maintenance tickets closed
  • # of planned preventative maintenance (PPM) tasks created
  • # of planned preventative maintenance tasks closed
  • # of planned preventative maintenance tasks closed on time
  • # of maintenance hours
  • # of reactive maintenance hours
  • # of preventative maintenance hours

Once you have collected the above information you can start to combine some of these numbers into formulas to come up with some more compelling metrics and key performance indicators.

Facility maintenance KPIS 

The aim of these KPIs is to measure the performance of your facility maintenance operation. The goal is to see these metrics improving over-time. 

  • Planned Maintenance Percentage (PMP)
  • Preventative Maintenance Compliance (PMC)
  • Mean Time to Close (MTTC)

What is Planned Maintenance Percentage (PMP)?

Planned maintenance percentage (PMP) is a maintenance metric that measures the number of planned maintenance tasks in comparison to all maintenance tasks. PMP is expressed as the percentage of total maintenance hours spent on planned maintenance tasks in a given period.

Planned maintenance percentage is a valuable metric for tracking the health of a preventive maintenance program and identifying opportunities to reduce reactive maintenance. PMP can also be used to pinpoint the cause of failure, inefficiencies, and broken maintenance processes so they can be fixed.

How is PMP calculated?

Planned maintenance percentage is calculated by dividing the total number of planned maintenance hours in a given period by the total number of hours spent on all maintenance in the same period. This number is multiplied by 100 to give you the final percentage.

PMP = # of planned maintenance hours ÷ # of total maintenance hours × 100

For example, if you spent 175 hours during the month on planned maintenance and 200 hours on all maintenance, your planned maintenance percentage would be 87.5%.

Planned Maintenance Percentage Metric

Planned maintenance is any maintenance that is organised, documented, and scheduled before a fault is reported or an asset ‘fails’. Any maintenance that is scheduled in response to a fault being reported is called reactive maintenance.

What does PMP mean for maintenance?

Planned maintenance serves as a fundamental pillar of a well-functioning maintenance operation. Its significance lies in the efficient utilisation of time, minimised periods of inactivity, adherence to safety regulations, and cost-effective practices. 

Monitoring the percentage of planned maintenance empowers maintenance teams to gain valuable insights in these areas, fostering continuous improvement of strengths while addressing identified weaknesses.

What is Planned Maintenance Compliance (PMC)?

Planned maintenance compliance (PMC) is a maintenance metric that measures the level of compliance within planned maintenance tasks. This means measuring if planned preventative maintenance tasks have been completed correctly and on schedule. If for example, a fire alarm test was not performed as scheduled, this would impact the compliance metric.

How is PMC Calculated?

PMC is calculated by dividing the # of PPM tasks completed on time by the total number of PPM tasks and then multiplied by 100 to get a percentage.

Planned Maintenance Compliance %

For example, if you had 100 PPM tasks and 78 of them were completed as scheduled, the PMC score would be 78%. Obviously the closer to 100% the better.

What does PMC mean for maintenance?

A good PMC means that your planned preventive maintenance is going to plan and is compliant. A poor PMC can indicate that there are issues with the plan and/or the staffing. It also indicates a bigger problem in the sense that may have reduced compliance in certain areas when a planned maintenance task is overdue and not completed on time.

A good example of this would be if you failed to conduct a safety inspection on a bed hoist in a care home and then it broke while in use. 

What is Mean Time To Close (MTTC)?

Mean Time To Close is the average time it takes for a maintenance ticket to be closed from the date of creation. This is different from Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) which measures the time it takes to repair something, which is more specific to manufacturing maintenance.

Mean Time to Close is more generic in the sense that it measures the time it takes a ticket to close, this can include daily inspections and checks, rather than just repairs.

How is MTTC Calculated?

MTTC is measured by adding up the total amount of time taken on closed tickets and then dividing this by the total number of tickets. So, if you have 100 tickets that took 500 hours in total to close, the MTTC would be 5 Hours.

Mean Time To Close (MMTC) Metric Calculation.

What does MTTC mean for maintenance?

The saving ‘time is money’ is very true for facility maintenance management. If your maintenance team or contractors are spending more time on maintenance tasks, that usually equates to more money being spent on maintenance.

That’s why it is important to measure the time spent on maintenance, this is the simplest way of measuring the impact on cost and efficiency. So a low MTTC is good and a high one is bad, the longer it takes to close a ticket, the more time and money will be spent on fixing it.

Facility Maintenance Metric Categorisation

Segmentation of your metrics allows you to analyse your maintenance in more detail, allowing you to be more informed about where the best and worst parts of your maintenance operation are. This then allows you to treat the problem more effectively by pin-pointing the issues.

Categorising maintenance metrics by type

Using categories to group your maintenance tasks enables you to retrospectively analyse your maintenance and spot trends. For example, if you grouped maintenance by plumbing, electrical and equipment, you may see a trend in the number of maintenance tasks created in a certain category, this would indicate an area you need to focus on.

Categorising maintenance metrics by location

In a similar vein to categorising maintenance tasks by type, categorising maintenance by location again allows you to spot trends based on location. If, for example you notice a trend in a certain facility, building or even room, you can then look in detail into this to decipher where the issue lies and why there is a higher volume in a certain area

Facility Maintenance heat mapping

Heat-mapping is a visual way of identifying areas of facilities that are prone to certain types of maintenance. Heat-mapping in facilities is often used for things like HVAC systems and utilises IoT devices and sensors.

An example of a heat-map in a facility

Using metrics to measure the ROI of maintenance

One of the biggest benefits of monitoring facilities maintenance metrics is being able to show the return on investment in something like facilities management software. If you have have invested in software you may also have access to a maintenance KPI dashboard that you can use to visualise these metrics and share them internally.

The standard ROI formula is: (profit - cost) / cost. For facility maintenance, the majority of the cost is in labour, so the number of hours it takes to complete the maintenance.

For most facility management teams, the profit is often not something that is directly related to an improvement in maintenance management. But, I think everybody knows using common sense that an improvement in a facility like a gym, school or care home will have a direct impact on the customers experience and therefore revenue generated or memberships and tenancy rates.

Business Metrics Impacted by Facility maintenance

Facility maintenance is a key component of a businesses success. Maintenance metrics should never be evaluated in isolation, they should be monitored alongside business metrics that are associated with a better facility. For facilities these types of metrics can include:

  • Review score
  • Tenancy Rates
  • Membership Numbers

Alongside these metrics some more qualitative analysis is often required when assessing the impact of facility maintenance on wider business operations. This means getting more subjective data on the facility such as reviews and opinions expressed by the users of the facilities. A badly maintained facility can have a big impact on business. Just look at this Google review below:

An example of a bad review impacted by poor maintenance.

This is where facilities management differs from manufacturing maintenance management. A manufacturing facility typically only has employees as tenants and users, they are not customers. A facility like a gym, swimming pool, football stadium on the other hand are judged based on their facilities and a negative review, opinion or experience can directly impact the businesses success. Facility maintenance metrics can not only help you measure and improve your facility management operations, it can help improve your companies reputation and revenue.

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